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  6. MERGE INTO

MERGE INTO

Function

The MERGE INTO statement is used to conditionally match data in a target table with that in a source table. If data matches, UPDATE is executed on the target table; if data does not match, INSERT is executed. You can use this syntax to run UPDATE and INSERT at a time for convenience.

Precautions

  • To run MERGE INTO, you must have the UPDATE and INSERT permissions for the target table, as well as the SELECT permission for the source table.
  • PREPARE is not supported.
  • MERGE INTO cannot be executed during redistribution.

Syntax

MERGE INTO table_name [ [ AS ] alias ]
USING { { table_name | view_name } | subquery } [ [ AS ] alias ]
ON ( condition )
[
  WHEN MATCHED THEN
  UPDATE SET { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT } |
          ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) } [, ...]
  [ WHERE condition ]
]
[
  WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
  INSERT { DEFAULT VALUES |
  [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] [ WHERE condition ] }
];

Parameter Description

  • INTO clause

    Specifies the target table that is being updated or has data being inserted. It cannot be a replication table.

    • talbe_name

      Specifies the name of the target table.

    • alias

      Specifies the alias of the target table.

      Value range: a string that complies with the naming convention.

  • USING clause

    Specifies the source table, which can be a table, view, or subquery.

  • ON clause

    Specifies the condition used to match data between the source and target tables. Columns in the condition cannot be updated.

  • WHEN MATCHED clause

    Performs the UPDATE operation if data in the source table matches that in the target table based on the condition.

    Distribution keys cannot be updated. System catalogs and system columns cannot be updated.

  • WHEN NOT MATCHED clause

    Specifies that the INSERT operation is performed if data in the source table does not match that in the target table based on the condition.

    The INSERT clause is not allowed to contain multiple VALUES.

    The order of WHEN MATCHED and WHEN NOT MATCHED clauses can be reversed. One of them can be used by default, but they cannot be both used at one time. Two WHEN MATCHED or WHEN NOT MATCHED clauses cannot be specified at the same time.

  • DEFAULT

    Specifies the default value of a column.

    It will be NULL if no specific default value has been assigned to it.

  • WHERE condition

    Specifies the conditions for the UPDATE and INSERT clauses. The two clauses will be executed only when the conditions are met. The default value can be used. System columns cannot be referenced in WHERE condition.

Examples

-- Create the target table products and source table newproducts, and insert data to them.
CREATE TABLE products
(
product_id INTEGER,
product_name VARCHAR2(60),
category VARCHAR2(60)
);

INSERT INTO products VALUES (1501, 'vivitar 35mm', 'electrncs');
INSERT INTO products VALUES (1502, 'olympus is50', 'electrncs');
INSERT INTO products VALUES (1600, 'play gym', 'toys');
INSERT INTO products VALUES (1601, 'lamaze', 'toys');
INSERT INTO products VALUES (1666, 'harry potter', 'dvd');

CREATE TABLE newproducts
(
product_id INTEGER,
product_name VARCHAR2(60),
category VARCHAR2(60)
);

INSERT INTO newproducts VALUES (1502, 'olympus camera', 'electrncs');
INSERT INTO newproducts VALUES (1601, 'lamaze', 'toys');
INSERT INTO newproducts VALUES (1666, 'harry potter', 'toys');
INSERT INTO newproducts VALUES (1700, 'wait interface', 'books');

-- Run MERGE INTO.
MERGE INTO products p   
USING newproducts np   
ON (p.product_id = np.product_id)   
WHEN MATCHED THEN  
  UPDATE SET p.product_name = np.product_name, p.category = np.category WHERE p.product_name != 'play gym'  
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN  
  INSERT VALUES (np.product_id, np.product_name, np.category) WHERE np.category = 'books';
MERGE 4

-- Query updates.
SELECT * FROM products ORDER BY product_id;
 product_id |  product_name  | category  
------------+----------------+-----------
       1501 | vivitar 35mm   | electrncs
       1502 | olympus camera | electrncs
       1600 | play gym       | toys
       1601 | lamaze         | toys
       1666 | harry potter   | toys
       1700 | wait interface | books
(6 rows)

-- Delete the tables.
DROP TABLE products;
DROP TABLE newproducts;