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  6. FETCH

FETCH

Function

FETCH retrieves data using a previously-created cursor.

A cursor has an associated position, which is used by FETCH. The cursor position can be before the first row of the query result, on any particular row of the result, or after the last row of the result.

  • When created, a cursor is positioned before the first row.
  • After fetching some rows, the cursor is positioned on the row most recently retrieved.
  • If FETCH runs off the end of the available rows then the cursor is left positioned after the last row, or before the first row if fetching backward.
  • FETCH ALL or FETCH BACKWARD ALL will always leave the cursor positioned after the last row or before the first row.

Precautions

  • If NO SCROLL is defined for the cursor, a backward fetch like FETCH BACKWARD is not allowed.
  • The forms NEXT, PRIOR, FIRST, LAST, ABSOLUTE, and RELATIVE appropriately fetch a record after moving the cursor. If the cursor is already after the last row before being moved, an empty result is returned, and the cursor is left positioned before the first row (backward fetch) or after the last row (forward fetch) as appropriate.
  • The forms using FORWARD and BACKWARD retrieve the indicated number of rows moving in the forward or backward direction, leaving the cursor positioned on the last-returned row (or after (backward fetch)/before (forward fetch) all rows, if the count exceeds the number of rows available).
  • RELATIVE 0, FORWARD 0, and BACKWARD 0 all request fetching the current row without moving the cursor, that is, re-fetching the most recently fetched row. This will succeed unless the cursor is positioned before the first row or after the last row, in which case, no row is returned.
  • If the cursor of FETCH involves a column-store table or, backward fetches like BACKWARD, PRIOR, and FIRST are not supported.

Syntax

FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name;

The direction clause specifies optional parameters.

NEXT
   | PRIOR
   | FIRST
   | LAST
   | ABSOLUTE count
   | RELATIVE count
   | count
   | ALL
   | FORWARD
   | FORWARD count
   | FORWARD ALL
   | BACKWARD
   | BACKWARD count
   | BACKWARD ALL

Parameter Description

  • direction_clause

    Defines the fetch direction.

    Valid value:

    • NEXT (default value)

      Fetches the next row.

    • PRIOR

      Fetches the prior row.

    • FIRST

      Fetches the first row of the query (same as ABSOLUTE 1).

    • LAST

      Fetches the last row of the query (same as ABSOLUTE -1).

    • ABSOLUTE count

      Fetches the (count)'th row of the query.

      ABSOLUTE fetches are not any faster than navigating to the desired row with a relative move: the underlying implementation must traverse all the intermediate rows anyway.

      count is a possibly-signed integer constant:

      • If count is a positive integer, fetches the (count)'th row of the query, starting from the first row. If count is less than the current cursor position, a rewind operation is required, which is currently not supported.
      • If count is a negative value or 0, a backward scanning is required, which is currently not supported.
    • RELATIVE count

      Fetches the (count)'th succeeding row, or the abs(count)'th prior row if count is negative.

      count is a possibly-signed integer constant:

      • If count is a positive integer, fetches the (count)'th succeeding row.
      • If count is a negative value, a backward scanning is required, which is currently not supported.
      • RELATIVE 0 fetches the current row.
    • count

      Fetches the next count rows (same as FORWARD count).

    • ALL

      Fetches all remaining rows (same as FORWARD ALL).

    • FORWARD

      Fetches the next row (same as NEXT).

    • FORWARD count

      Fetches the next count rows (same as RELATIVE count). FORWARD 0 re-fetches the current row.

    • FORWARD ALL

      Fetches all remaining rows.

    • BACKWARD

      Fetches the prior row (same as PRIOR).

    • BACKWARD count

      Fetches the prior count rows (scanning backwards).

      count is a possibly-signed integer constant:

      • If count is a positive integer, fetches the (count)'th prior row.
      • If count is a negative integer, fetches the abs(count)'th succeeding row.
      • BACKWARD 0 re-fetches the current row.
    • BACKWARD ALL

      Fetches all prior rows (scanning backwards).

  • { FROM | IN } cursor_name

    Specifies the cursor name using the keyword FROM or IN.

    Value range: an existing cursor name.

Examples

-- For the SELECT statement, use a cursor to read a table. Start a transaction:
START TRANSACTION;

-- Set up the cursor1 cursor:
CURSOR cursor1 FOR SELECT * FROM tpcds.customer_address ORDER BY 1;

-- Fetch the first three rows from cursor1:
FETCH FORWARD 3 FROM cursor1;
 ca_address_sk |  ca_address_id   | ca_street_number |   ca_street_name   | ca_street_type  | ca_suite_number |     ca_city     |    ca_county    | ca_state |   ca_zip   |  ca_country   | ca_gmt_offset |   ca_location_type   
---------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------+------------+---------------+---------------+----------------------
             1 | AAAAAAAABAAAAAAA | 18               | Jackson            | Parkway         | Suite 280       | Fairfield       | Maricopa County | AZ       | 86192      | United States |         -7.00 | condo               
             2 | AAAAAAAACAAAAAAA | 362              | Washington 6th     | RD              | Suite 80        | Fairview        | Taos County     | NM       | 85709      | United States |         -7.00 | condo               
             3 | AAAAAAAADAAAAAAA | 585              | Dogwood Washington | Circle          | Suite Q         | Pleasant Valley | York County     | PA       | 12477      | United States |         -5.00 | single family       
(3 rows)

-- Close the cursor and commit the transaction:
CLOSE cursor1;

-- End the transaction:
END;

-- For the VALUES clause, use a cursor to read the content of the clause. Start a transaction:
START TRANSACTION;

-- Set up the cursor cursor2:
CURSOR cursor2 FOR VALUES(1,2),(0,3) ORDER BY 1;

-- Fetch the first two rows from cursor2:
FETCH FORWARD 2 FROM cursor2;
column1 | column2
---------+---------
0 |       3
1 |       2
(2 rows)

-- Close the cursor and commit the transaction:
CLOSE cursor2;

-- End the transaction:
END;

-- Use the WITH HOLD cursor to start a transaction:
START TRANSACTION;

-- Set up a WITH HOLD cursor:
DECLARE cursor1 CURSOR WITH HOLD FOR SELECT * FROM tpcds.customer_address ORDER BY 1;

-- Fetch the first two rows from cursor1:
FETCH FORWARD 2 FROM cursor1;
 ca_address_sk |  ca_address_id   | ca_street_number |   ca_street_name   | ca_street_type  | ca_suite_number |     ca_city     |    ca_county    | ca_state |   ca_zip   |  ca_country   | ca_gmt_offset |   ca_location_type   
---------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------+------------+---------------+---------------+----------------------
             1 | AAAAAAAABAAAAAAA | 18               | Jackson            | Parkway         | Suite 280       | Fairfield       | Maricopa County | AZ       | 86192      | United States |         -7.00 | condo               
             2 | AAAAAAAACAAAAAAA | 362              | Washington 6th     | RD              | Suite 80        | Fairview        | Taos County     | NM       | 85709      | United States |         -7.00 | condo               
(2 rows)

-- End the transaction:
END;

-- Fetch the next row from cursor1:
FETCH FORWARD 1 FROM cursor1;
 ca_address_sk |  ca_address_id   | ca_street_number |   ca_street_name   | ca_street_type  | ca_suite_number |     ca_city     |    ca_county    | ca_state |   ca_zip   |  ca_country   | ca_gmt_offset |   ca_location_type   
---------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------+------------+---------------+---------------+----------------------
             3 | AAAAAAAADAAAAAAA | 585              | Dogwood Washington | Circle          | Suite Q         | Pleasant Valley | York County     | PA       | 12477      | United States |         -5.00 | single family       
(1 row)

-- Close the cursor:
CLOSE cursor1;

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