Making an API Request

This section describes the structure of a RESTful API request, and uses the API for Obtaining a User Token as an example to describe how to call an API. A token is a user's access credential, which contains the user identity and permission information. The obtained token is used to authenticate the calling of other APIs.

Request URI

A request URI is in the following format:

{URI-scheme}://{Endpoint}/{resource-path}?{query-string}

Table 1 Request URL

Parameter

Description

URI-scheme

Protocol used to transmit requests. All APIs use HTTPS.

Endpoint

Domain name or IP address of the server running the REST service. The endpoint varies between services in different regions. It can be obtained from Endpoints.

resource-path

API access path for performing a specified operation. Obtain the value from the URI of the API. For example, the resource-path of the API for obtaining a user token is /v3/auth/tokens.

query-string

Query parameter, which is optional. Ensure that a question mark (?) is included before a query parameter that is in the format of "Parameter name=Parameter value". For example, limit=10 indicates that a maximum of 10 pieces of data is to be viewed.


For example, to obtain an IAM token in a region, obtain the endpoint of IAM for this region and the resource-path (/v3/auth/tokens) in the URI of the API used to obtain a user token. Then, construct the URI as follows:

https://<iam-endpoint>/v3/auth/tokens

Note

To simplify the URI display, each API is provided with only a resource-path and a request method. This is because the URI-scheme value of all APIs is HTTPS, and the endpoints in a region are the same. Therefore, the two parts are omitted.

Request Methods

HTTP-based request methods, which are also called operations or actions, specify the type of operations that you are requesting.

  • GET: requests the server to return specified resources.

  • PUT: requests the server to update specified resources.

  • POST: requests the server to add resources or perform special operations.

  • DELETE: requests the server to delete specified resources, for example, an object.

  • HEAD: requests a server resource header.

  • PATCH: requests the server to update partial content of a specified resource. If the target resource does not exist, PATCH may create a resource.

If POST is displayed in the URI of the API for obtaining a user token, the request is as follows:

POST https://{iam-endpoint}/v3/auth/tokens

Request Header

You can also add additional fields to a request, such as the fields required by a specified URI or an HTTP method. For example, add Content-Type that defines a request body type to request for the authentication information.

Table 2 lists common request header fields.

Table 2 Common request headers

Parameter

Mandatory

Description

Content-Type

Yes

Message body type (or format). You are advised to use the default value application/json.

X-Auth-Token

No (Mandatory for token-based authentication)

User token.

User token is the response to the API for obtaining a user token (only this API does not require authentication). After the request is processed, the value of X-Subject-Token in the response header (Header) is the token value.

X-Language

No

Request language

The API used to obtain a user token does not require authentication. Therefore, only the Content-Type field needs to be added to requests for calling the API. An example of such requests is as follows:

POST https://{iam-endpoint}/v3/auth/tokens
Content-Type: application/json

Request Body

A request body conveys information other than the request header and is generally sent in a structured format defined by the request header field Content-Type.

The request body varies according to the APIs. Certain APIs do not require the request body, such as the GET and DELETE APIs.

In the case of the API used to obtain a user token, the request parameters and parameter description can be obtained from the API request. The following provides an example request with a body included. Replace username, domainname, ******** (login password), and xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (project ID) with the actual values. To learn how to obtain a project ID, see Obtaining a Project ID and Name.

Note

The scope parameter defines the application scope of the token, indicating that the obtained token can access only the resources in the specified project.

POST https://{iam-endpoint}/v3/auth/tokens
Content-Type: application/json
{
    "auth": {
        "identity": {
            "methods": [
                "password"
            ],
            "password": {
                "user": {
                    "name": "username",    //Username
                    "password": "********",    //Login password
                    "domain": {
                        "name": "domainname "    //Name of the account to which the user belongs
                    }
                }
            }
        },
        "scope": {
            "project": {
                "id": "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"    //Project ID
            }
        }
    }
}

If all data required by a request is available, you can send the request to call an API through curl, Postman, or coding. For the API of obtaining a user token, x-subject-token in the response header is the desired user token. Then, you can use the token to authenticate the calling of other APIs.